Download the notebook `here`

# How to visualize an optimization problem#

Plotting the criterion function of an optimization problem can answer important questions - Is the function smooth? - Is the function flat in some directions? - Should the optimization problem be scaled? - Is a candidate optimum a global one?

Below we show how to make a slice plot of the criterion function.

## The simple sphere function (again)#

Letâ€™s look at the simple sphere function again. This time, we specify params as dictionary, but of course, any other params format (recall pytrees) would work just as well.

```
[1]:
```

```
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import estimagic as em
```

```
[2]:
```

```
def sphere(params):
x = np.array(list(params.values()))
return x @ x
```

```
[3]:
```

```
params = {"alpha": 0, "beta": 0, "gamma": 0, "delta": 0}
lower_bounds = {name: -5 for name in params}
upper_bounds = {name: i + 2 for i, name in enumerate(params)}
```

## Creating a simple slice plot#

```
[4]:
```

```
fig = em.slice_plot(
func=sphere,
params=params,
lower_bounds=lower_bounds,
upper_bounds=upper_bounds,
)
fig.show(renderer="png")
```

## Interpreting the plot#

The plot gives us the following insights:

There is no sign of local optima.

There is no sign of noise or non-differentiablities (careful, grid might not be fine enough).

The problem seems to be convex.

-> We would expect almost any derivative based optimizer to work well here (which we know to be correct in that case)

## Using advanced options#

```
[5]:
```

```
fig = em.slice_plot(
func=sphere,
params=params,
lower_bounds=lower_bounds,
upper_bounds=upper_bounds,
# selecting a subset of params
selector=lambda x: [x["alpha"], x["beta"]],
# evaluate func in parallel
n_cores=4,
# rename the parameters
param_names={"alpha": "Alpha", "beta": "Beta"},
title="Amazing Plot",
)
fig.show(renderer="png")
```